Printed Scripture

In the publishing phase, the finalized text is submitted for formatting. Translators may move to a town or center for a month or more to work with publications specialists who will help them prepare the text. This can be a stressful time, and even more so if the translation team has to travel far from friends, family, and familiar surroundings. But thanks to technology, much of the preparatory work can be completed on location, even in remote language communities.

The translation team works with formatters and other publications staff to verify spelling and punctuation, finalize page layout, and position illustrations, maps, and picture captions. After testing out illustrations in the community, they must obtain permission to use them from copyright holders. If the book is going to be printed with two columns per page, the lines will be quite short, and someone will need to check how any longer words have been or should be hyphenated. Finally, the team must proof the complete final text, checking references and page numbers and ensuring that the text is error free.

Next the files are given to a printing company. In some cases a local printer may be chosen, but if one is not available, an outside agency such as a Bible society is often used. The printing and binding stage will usually take three to six months. Sometimes this process is delayed because of difficulty obtaining or printing on the special thin paper that is usually used for Bibles.

Audio Scripture Players

Many of the people we work with come from oral societies that either don't read or simply prefer to listen to Scripture rather than read it. So we often partner with organizations like MegaVoice and Faith Comes By Hearing to produce audio recordings of the translated Scripture. These recordings are then placed on durable solar-powered devices like the Proclaimer or MegaVoice player.

Scripture Films

Video is an effective way for people to see Scripture come to life. The “JESUS” film is often one of the first pieces of Scripture to reach a community, because its script is based on the Gospel of Luke. Once translation of this book is complete, the film can be dubbed into the language. The Luke video and the Genesis video have also been dubbed into many languages.

Video Scripture for Signed Languages

Deaf people are among the most unreached in the world because they are less likely to be able to read or clearly understand something written in whatever language is being spoken around them. There are about four hundred signed languages in the world that may need translation, and each of them follows a completely different structure and thought process than spoken languages because they use visual concepts to convey meaning instead of words. This means that Scripture translations for the Deaf are usually in the form of videos of someone signing.

Digital Scripture

Finalized Scripture can also be put into digital form so that it can be read on cell phones and other electronic devices. Applications like YouVersion and allow readers to download the Scripture and provide helpful tools for daily reading and study.

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Road to Transformation

The Bible translation process can be loosely compared to a roadmap of checkpoints. While each language project is unique, this map helps to simplify an otherwise complex process for the purpose of illustration.

Steps of Translation

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In cases where a community is not already interested in Bible translation, a gateway project can help raise awareness and open closed doors. Literacy classes, healthcare, and a number of other practical helps are tangible ways to demonstrate love and build relationships with the community and its local government officials. When they see that someone sincerely cares about them, they are more likely to consider and even grant assistance to a Bible translation project.

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Language Development

Translators need a good understanding of how target language works, and local speakers need skills and resources to use their language in new ways (like reading the Bible). Language specialists can help analyze and document language structures, and develop resources like orthographies (writing systems), practical grammars (descriptions of how to form grammatical sentences), dictionaries, and literacy materials.

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Traditionally, the average Bible translation took about twenty-five years to complete, but if trained people, resources, and language development are already in place, some of the initial steps happen much quicker and allow the team to get right to the translation phase. The translation step itself is also enhanced when teams have access to the latest technology or can operate in cluster projects—a method where translators from similar languages work together to complete multiple translations at once. We're excited that these methods have been accelerating the pace of Bible translation more than ever before in human history!

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Translation teams include speakers of the language, along with outside translation specialists. Together they carefully study the original Greek and Hebrew text, specialized translation commentaries, and the local linguistic and cultural context. The team uses special software programs to create trial portions of the text, and then they have it checked by consultants and tested by communities for clarity and accuracy, tediously going through numerous drafts and revisions until it is ready for publication.

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Community Development

Translating Scripture takes place in a larger context of holistic, transformational development. Literacy and education form a big part of this picture. Translators might help create primers, educational curriculum, and booklets addressing crucial issues such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, agriculture, maternal health, and clean water. They may also partner with others who specialize in crucial aspects of community development.

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Once the text of a translation is finalized, it can be published in a variety of ways. Traditionally, there's usually been a printed version, in which case translators will work with a typesetter to lay out and format the text so it can be given to a printing company. The translation team may also ask one of our partners (such as Faith Comes By Hearing, MegaVoice, YouVersion, and the “JESUS” film) to produce audio, video, or digital versions of the Scripture. In the case of signed languages, the Scripture itself will be in video form.

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Translation projects can get put on hold if a team member becomes sick or dies or if the area the team is working in suffers instability or natural disaster. A drop in financial support will also slow down or stop a project until sufficient funds can be raised. Wycliffe translators find that roadblocks tend to increase in amount and intensity as they get close to finishing a Bible translation. If you'd like to pray for translation projects within three years of completion, go to the Finish Line publication for more information.


Once the Scriptures have been published in the form of a book, audio player, or DVD, they'll get placed on board a ship, plane, vehicle, or some other form of transportation headed in the direction of the language group. If necessary, a local agent will be responsible for getting the Bibles through customs and transported to their final destination. Digital Scripture versions can either be placed on a website for people to download or be transferred via cell phone or other storage devices. The community often plans an event to publicize, celebrate, and distribute the new Scripture.

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Scripture Engagement

Scripture engagement workers develop creative ways to help people understand and integrate God's Word into their daily lives. This can take the form of Bible study curriculum, skits, ethnomusicology (composing Scripture songs in local music styles), trained Bible storytellers, radio programs, or video lessons on Scriptural truths. Two Scripture-based studies, in particular, have been highly effective for many people groups–Healing the Wounds of Trauma for those who have suffered tragedy like war or natural disaster and Kande's Story for communities facing HIV/AIDS.

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As communities receive and understand God's Word clearly for the first time, lives can change in dramatic ways. Many find freedom from harmful addictions and longstanding conflicts. When communities realize that they matter to God—that He speaks their language—their personal relationships begin to reflect God's love. And as people find dignity, along with new knowledge and education, they can overcome poverty. The Church can be established or strengthened and the Scriptures can be used to make disciples who will share Christ with new communities! Click here for stories about individuals and whole communities who have been transformed by God's Word.

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